In the existing art, the method of measuring the flatness of the soft-pack cell is mainly the naked eye observation method, the micrometer thickness measurement or the laser scanning method.naked eye observation method, commonly known as visual observation method, is to use the visible light to observe the surface state of the cell, is a rough not quantitative observation method, although the visible light observation is fast, but can not quantitatively give the difference of the flatness of the cell. Laser scanning method is to use optical equipment to scan the whole contour of the cell into a 3D model, and then calculate the difference between the overall thickness value and the thickness value of the section, which can be measured quantitatively, but the equipment is expensive, with limited application¹.Some researchers also simulated the surface force distribution mapping of the module cell through simulation, which can also see the obvious phenomenon of the uneven pressure distribution, which on the one hand is related to the initial flatness of the cell, on the other hand is also related to the stress distribution difference caused by the uneven current density distribution in the subsequent charge and discharge process².This paper uses the cell pressure distribution system (B PD1000) to monitor the pressure distribution of different positions of the cell, so as to quickly quantify and evaluate the flatness of different cell sizes.
Figure 1 Simulation of the stress distribution of the simulated module cells²
1.est equipment：in-situ expansion test system S WE2110, cell pressure distribution system, model B PD1000 (I EST Yuan energy technology), with a maximum pressure strength of about 8.8MPa.
Figure 2. Schematic diagram of the cell pressure distribution test
2.1 The cell information is shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Cell information
2.2 Test process: Put the cell in the test cavity of in situ expansion analyzer (SWE2110), spread the pressure distribution film on the surface of the cell, set the constant gap mode, adjust the constant gap pressure of 300kg (i. e. apply 300kg external force to the cell), open the pressure distribution system (B PD1000) to collect and display the surface pressure distribution data of the cell.
Using pressure distribution system (B PD1000) respectively test the following three cell pressure distribution, according to 9.5*9.5mm divided into each small area, and the color scale display the cell force, as shown in figure 3: three cell force distribution is inconsistent, if each area force arithmetic, will find the total force will be less than 300kg, this is mainly due to the gap between the thin film sensor arrangement, and the gap pressure is not statistical.
Figure 3. Charge and discharge voltage and pressure change curve of the cell
Further analysis of the surface of the different positions of the flatness reason, as shown in figure 4,3 # cell head tail pressure because the aluminum foil crater size has larger margin, head tail subsidence without pressure, and the position of the finishing tape, show greater pressure, this is likely to be one of the important factors leading to its uneven.
Figure 4. 3 # Cell pressure distribution and physical comparison
Analysis of the pressure distribution of 2 # cell is shown in Figure 5: it is obvious that the position of the positive and negative pole ear is obvious, and the position of the edge without sticker paper is basically free, so the thickness specification of the pole ear and adhesive paper adhesion are likely to be one of the important factors affecting the leveling of 2 # cell.
Figure 5. 2 # Cell pressure distribution and physical comparison
For 1 # cells did not show a similar correlation with 2 # and 3 # cells, indicating that there are other deeper design factors besides the tape and polar ear factors. Relevant technicians can conduct a deeper analysis accordingly.
Figure 6. 1 # Cell pressure distribution and physical comparison
Set the initial pressure of 300kg to measure the pressure on the cell surface in a constant clearance mode. In this case, the uneven thickness of the cell will lead to the uneven distribution of the test pressure. The uneven thickness or pressure distribution mainly include: (1) uneven electrode thickness, generally positive and negative electrode thickness is 100-200 m. If the thickness deviation of positive and negative electrode is greater than 5 m, and the number of positive and negative electrode sheets is 41, the thickness deviation can reach 0.2mm; (2) uneven thickness of diaphragm, aluminum-plastic film causes uneven core; (4) electrode and diaphragm are not close. Generally, after the lamination, the cell will be thermoflat shaping treatment, Thermal pressure shaping can make the pole sheet and the diaphragm overlap more closely, Reduce the gap, Thus reducing the battery internal resistance, At the same time, it will also improve the uniformity of the cell thickness; (5) During the process of cell injection sealing, Low vacuum degree, Seal and vacuum is incomplete, The presence of gas in the aluminum-plastic film can also lead to the uneven thickness of the cell; (6) Dilwelling after absorption of conductive agent and binder, Will increase the cell thickness, If the conductive agent and binder are not evenly distributed within the pole sheet, It may also lead to uneven cell thickness; (7) The electrolyte decomposes in the process of pre-charging and aging, Gas production may also lead to an uneven cell thickness.
When the thickness of the cell is not uniform, the electrode will be subjected to different aluminum-plastic film shell pressure in the process of charge and discharge, which may lead to the uniformity of charge and discharge state, and reduce the capacity and stability of the battery. Therefore, the flatness needs to be controlled to improve the consistency in the design and manufacturing.Special attention processes include: (1) pole coating and roll pressure thickness control to improve the thickness uniformity; (2) suitable thermal pressing process to improve the thickness uniformity; (3) aluminum-plastic film punching and assembly process to ensure the cell flatness; and (4) liquid injection fluid sealing process to ensure the removal of internal air and electrolyte uniformity.
This paper describes the surface flatness of the electric cell by using the electric cell pressure distribution system (BPD1000). From the result analysis, there is a certain correlation between cell process design and cell pressure distribution (flatness). Technicians can formulate appropriate distribution standards through the pressure distribution system to monitor the batch stability of the shipped cell.
1.Bo Xu Ren Zhengxin Zheng Yanjun Ma Hua Liu Feng Wang Chiwei. Method for quantitatively determining the cell flatness [P]. China: CN112665548B, 2022.5.
2.Yongkun Li, Chuang Wei, Yumao Sheng, Feipeng Jiao, and Kai Wu. Swelling Force in Lithium-Ion Power Batteries，Ind. Eng.Chem. Res，2020, 59, 27, 12313–12318.